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- California Veterinary Law Exam Answers – Questions & Answers Revealed
- Things To Remember Before Taking California Veterinary Law Exam
California Veterinary Law Exam Answers – Questions & Answers Revealed
Please find the right questions and answers for the California Veterinary Law Exam which we divided into sample papers to make it easier for you.
Also, note that every practice exam bundle discussed below has around 32 questions and answers each.
California Veterinary Law Exam Answers – Sample Paper 1
Q. Who can call themselves a technician?
Ans: Only licensed RVT’s
Q. What is Animal?
Ans: Any member of the animal kingdom (not humans); including fowl, fish, reptiles, wild or domestic, living or dead.
Q. RVT may suture
Ans: Existing skin incisions after order, and under direct supervision, of a licensed vet.
Q. RVT’s may not
Ans: Diagnose, Prognose, Prescribe, and Perform Surgery (debride or trim a surgery site, etc.).
Q. What is direct supervision?
Ans: The veterinarian is on the premises and easily available.
Q. What is Diagnosis?
Ans: Act or process of identifying health status. It is a medical opinion based on an exam.
Q. What is Food Animal?
Ans: ANY animal specifically raised for the production of a product intended for consumption. (i.e. meat, eggs, milk etc.)
Q. Who is an Unregistered Assistant?
Ans: ANY individual that works with animals that are not licensed
Q. What is Indirect Supervision?
Ans: Not physically present at site, however, has given written or oral instructions for treatment of the patient.
Q. What is the purpose of the CVPA?
Ans: Tend to the public’s safety, welfare, and protection.
Q. Animal Hospital Setting
Ans: ALL veterinary premises. Must be registered with the Veterinary Medical Board (VMB).
Q. The supervising veterinarian is responsible for
–Determining the competency of RVT or Unregistered assistants.
–Make ALL decisions in regard to patient treatments.
-NEEDS to examine patient (ALWAYS before anesthesia).
Q. “Emergency” as defined by the animal health technician law
Ans: The animal is placed in a life-threatening condition where immediate treatment is necessary to sustain life
Q. Limb immobilization by the RVT in an emergency case would include
Q. If you were alone, observing a patient recovering from anesthesia, and suddenly the animal stopped breathing, which procedure would you follow?
Ans: Establish an open airway and call the veterinarian immediately
Q. In the absence of a veterinarian, an emergency case canine patient with a spurting femoral artery should be attended by an RVT as follows:
Ans: Attempt to keep the animal quiet and immediately apply pressure
Q. In an emergency where no veterinarian is available, an RVT may:
Ans: Intubate an animal to restore an open airway.
Q. You are on duty and a dog arrives suffering from what appears to be severe shock. As an RVT you should:
-Note vital signs (temp, respiration, color, etc.)
-Contact the veterinarian in charge
-Administer therapy as per the veterinarian’s instructions
Q. An animal who has been hit by a car is bleeding profusely and appears in shock. A loop of intestine is protruding through the abdominal wall. On admission, in the absence of the veterinarian, you should:
-Intubate the animal if necessary and administer oxygen
-Pour sterile saline on an intestinal segment and cover
-Apply pressure bandage to profusely bleeding areas
Q. In the absence of a veterinarian, upon presentation of a severely injured animal, the RVT should:
-Try to control any hemorrhage (tourniquet/pressure bandage)
-Provide patent airway if necessary (intubation, 02 mask)
-Cover any superficial wounds (wound dressings)
-External cardiac resuscitation (if necessary)
-Call for professional help.
Q. Rules for any medical emergency:
-Clear airway and restore breathing
-Stop the bleeding
Q. An RVT may debride an abscess
Ans: NEVER. Under no circumstances.
Q. If a person has been bitten by an animal, the required course of action is:
Ans: To report the bite to the proper health authorities.
Q. If not renewed, an RVT license shall expire:
Ans: Biennially on the last day of the birth month of the applicant.
Q. The RVT examining committee has the power, by law, to:
-Assist the Board in administering the RVT exam.
-Investigate applicants as directed by the Board.
-Make recommendations to the Board regarding continuing education.
Q. The Board may revoke or suspend the registration of an RVT for:
-The employment of fraud, misrepresentation, or deception in obtaining a registration.
-Conviction of a felony in which case the record of such conviction will be conclusive evidence
-Chronic inebriety or habitual use of drugs.
Q. An RVT shall not:
-Diagnose and/or give a prognosis
Q. School’s offering a curriculum for training an RVT must be approved by the
Ans: California Board of Examiners in Veterinary Medicine
California Veterinary Law Exam Answers – Sample Paper 2
Q. Accounts receivable are
Ans: Accounts due for services rendered.
Q. An RVT can legally suture an existing lesion on a client animal only if
Ans: a doctor is in the building.
Q. If you make an incorrect entry in a medical record you should
Ans: Mark through it, initial it, date it, and then rewrite it.
Q. In California, all dogs must be vaccinated against rabies at what age?
Ans: Four months
Q. After removing the head of an animal that is suspected of having rabies, you should:
Ans: Refrigerate the head.
Q. All personnel 18 years of age and older who enter a controlled area shall be provided with monitoring equipment
Ans: Whenever skin exposure is likely to exceed 2 rems per quarter.
Q. Which absorbs the most x-radiation?
Q. According to California radiation safety laws, the maximum permissible exposure to the whole body is
Ans: 1.25 rem per quarter (5 rems per year)
Q. Biological damage from X-rays results mainly from (3)
-Damage to cellular reproduction
Q. Lead gloves and aprons should never be
Ans: Folded (it will break the lead)
Q. California radiation control regulations require the tube housing to be
Ans: Of diagnostic type
Q. Radiation safety during large animal radiography dictates the use of:
Ans: Cassette holders
Q. Foam wedges, tape, and other positioning and restraint devices reduce exposure to Ans: radiation by:
Ans: Reducing the number of people in the room
Q. California law requires the useful beam of X-ray to be controlled
Ans: By diaphragms or cones
Q. California law requires an X-ray timer to
Ans: Terminate the exposure after a pre-set time of exposure.
Q. Hands should be kept out of the primary X-ray beam
Ans: At ALL times.
Q. The single most effective radiation safety factor is
Q. Short-wave x-rays (3)
-Are produced by high kilovoltage
-Are necessary for diagnostic radiography
-Have greater penetrating capability than long-wave
Q. Film badges or pocket ionization chambers should be worn
Ans: thyroid/neck level outside the apron
Q. A collimating device is useful because
-Lowers patient exposure
-Decreases scatter radiation exposure
-Improves quality of radiography
Q. Film fogging due to scatter radiation may be decreased by the use of
Ans: A grid or bucky
Q. Intensifying screens are part of the
Q. If the tube-to-film distance is halved, the exposure
Ans: Is quartered
Q. Given a technique of 70 KVP, 100 MA, 0.1 sec which of the following changes will not affect the film contrast?
Ans: 70 KVP, 50 MA, 0.2 sec
Q. Non-screen film
Ans: Requires greater MAs
Q. Correct film processing follows this sequence (5)
Ans: Developer, rinse, fixer, wash, dry
Q. High-speed intensifying screens (3)
-Require less milliamperage
-Emit light when radiated
-May give a radiograph with a more granular experience
Q. The ideal temperature for processing solution for manual tank development is
Ans: 68 degrees F
Q. The appearance of white or light green artifacts on a radiograph may be caused by (3)
-Fingerprints on the film prior to processing
-Bending of the film prior to processing
-Two films stuck together during processing.
Q. Increasing the MAs of an X-ray exposure will
Ans: Cause increased film darkening
Q. Radiolucent material absorbs
Ans: Very little of x-ray passing through it
Q. Films should be stored in a
Ans: cool and dry place
California Veterinary Law Exam Answers – Sample Paper 3
Q. Thoracic radiography in dogs requires
Ans: Fast exposure time setting
Q. The common names of 6 species of animals, excluding aquatic animals, specifically covered by the Animal Welfare Act
Ans: Hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits, cats, dogs, monkeys
Q. Of the animals used in biomedical research 90% are
Ans: Mice and rats
Q. Rabies immunization requirements for domestic pets are determined by
Ans: Each county
Q. An RVT may legally _ in surgery in a veterinary practice (under DIRECT supervision)
Ans: induce anesthesia
Q. Controlled drugs are placed in categories I to V. Which is the most tightly controlled?
Ans: Category I (heroine etc.)
Q. In conducting an initial survey in an emergency, the RVT must attend to the patient’s needs (in order, 3)
Ans: Respiration, bleeding, heartbeat
Q. The Animal Welfare Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-579) applies specifically to the following species (6)
Ans: Dog, cat, monkeys, hamster, rabbit, guinea pig
Q. Diagnosis of rabies by use of the
Ans: Fluorescent antibody test
Q. Approved veterinary drugs are
Ans: Drugs whose use for certain diseases in certain species has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration
Q. Examples of extra-label use of veterinary drugs
-Used for species other than those indicated on the label
-the route of administration is different than indicated on the label
-the disease treated is different than those indicated on the label
-dosage interval is different than indicated on the label
Q. Extra-label of drugs is only legal if
Ans: there is a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship, with the animal’s medical diagnosis established
Q. Doses charted in medical records should be expressed in
Ans: Milligrams (mg), grams (g), units (U)
Q. Current laws state that the label on medications dispensed for use in food animals must contain
-Name of the veterinarian dispensing drug
-Identification (name or #) of an animal being treated
-Withdrawal time if the animal is to be slaughtered
-Withdrawal time if the animal’s milk is used for food.
Q. Is it legal for veterinarians to dispense medication to hospital staff for treatment of themselves?
Ans: It is not permitted under any circumstances.
Q. Are there licensed rabies vaccinations for wild animals?
Ans: There are no licensed rabies vaccinations approved for use in wild animals, with the exception of ferrets.
Q. What is the appropriate management of a dog or cat that bites a person?
Ans: The animal should be confined and observed for 10 days, if any signs of illness arise, a veterinarian should evaluate the animal and report to the health department. If signs of rabies emerge, the animal should be humanely killed and the head sent to the local or state health department for rabies examination.
Q. An unregistered assistant may take radiographs
Ans: Under DIRECT supervision of a licensed veterinarian. The training of this individual in radiography must also be logged and readily available to the board at any time. No training record no taking radiographs.
Q. Radiation safety during large animal radiography dictates the use of:
Ans: Cassette holders
Q. Can an RVT prescribe medications?
Q. In order for a veterinarian to prescribe treatment or medication, there must be a…
Ans: client-patient-veterinarian relationship
Q. Changing a medical record in any way is illegal and constitutes
Q. Pharmacodynamics may be defined as
Ans: The method by which the function of the living body is affected by the drug
Q. A physical property of x-rays is
Ans: travel in straight lines
Q. As the wavelength of X-ray photons shortens, the energy of the X-ray beam will
Q. The kVp setting on an X-ray machine controls the
Ans: Quality of the X-ray beam
Q. During an exposure, electrons in the X-ray tube travel from the
Ans: Cathode to the anode
Q. The accelerations of the electrons and their ultimate striking energy are determined by the
Q. The heel effect is going to be more noticeable with
Ans: The larger film, shorter focal-film distance, and lower kVp
Q. The heel effect is
Ans: the x-ray intensity is greater at the cathode end of the x-ray field and lower at the anode end because of absorption in the target material.
Q. The main purpose of an X-ray fixer is to
Ans: Clear away the unexposed, undeveloped silver halide crystals
Q. What can cause the image on a processed x-ray film to be fogged?
Ans: Film stored in an area of high room temperature
California Veterinary Law Exam Answers – Sample Paper 4
Q. If you were going to decrease the focal-film distance from 100 cm to 50 cm, what would your new mAs be if the old mAs were 16?
Ans: 4.0 mAs
Q. Who governs or sets laws as to what an RVT may or may not do?
Ans: Board of Examiners in Veterinary Medicine
Q. If you do not pay the renewal fee (for your license) when will it expire?
Ans: On the month of your birthday
Q. Emergency, as defined in RVT law, means
Ans: Immediate treatment is necessary to sustain life
Q. Limb immobilization by an RVT in an emergency would include
Q. In the case of respiratory or cardiac arrest, when no veterinarian is on the premises, you should first
Ans: establish a patent airway at once and administer oxygen
Q. If a person has been bitten by an animal, the required course of action is
Ans: Report the bite to the proper health authorities
Q. The state agency that grants permits for keeping certain wild animals is
Ans: Department of Fish and Wildlife
Q. Laboratory animal medicine is best defined as
Ans: The specialty field of veterinary medicine is concerned with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease in laboratory animals.
Q. The United States Department of Agriculture quarantine period for psittacine birds arriving in the Ans: U.S. from another country is
Q. What is included in the regulations governing the shipment of dogs, cats, and nonhuman primates by commercial airlines?
-All animals shipped must be accompanied by a health certificate from a vet accredited by the USDA
-The ambient temperature in the commercial airplane must be between 45-85 F.
-Animals must be housed in a cage of adequate size to allow the animal to stand comfortably and turn around.
-Food must be provided every 24 hours and water must be provided every 12 hours after shipment is initiated.
Q. Medical records are essential for
Ans: the defense of civil or criminal suits for malpractice
Q. Medical records include (4)
Ans: Computerized, hand-written, problem-oriented, or source-oriented records
Q. A problem-oriented medical record includes
Ans: Subjective, Objective= exam, Assessment=diagnosis, Plans= further treatment (SOAP)
Q. What does Federal Law require to maintain a written record/log?
Ans: Controlled substances
Q. Clients patronize a veterinary practice for 2 main reasons:
-resolve their animal’s health problems
-feel that they are providing excellent care for their animal
Q. The major reason cited by employees who quit working for a practice is:
Ans: Lack of recognition
Q. A crucial point in client interaction is
Ans: any aspect of the interaction that forms the client’s opinion of the practice
Q. What temperature do the chemicals need to be when processing x-ray films?
Ans: 68 F
Q. What is the time relationship between fixing and developing radiographs?
Ans: the fixing time should be twice the developing time
Q. What happens when the radiographic film is stored past the expiration dates listed on the carton?
Ans: The film becomes fogged
Q. Why are screens used in veterinary radiography?
-Screens do not require as much radiation to produce the same radiographic density as direct exposure film.
-Screens intensify the beam.
Q. Which grid requires the highest exposure technique
Ans: the higher the ratio, the higher the technique, the better the grid
Q. What does collimation do?
Ans: Reduces scatter/secondary radiation
Q. Why should a radiation film badge be worn at the collar level?
Ans: To monitor exposure of the thyroid gland and the lenses of the eyes
Q. What element clears the remaining silver halide crystals from the exposed x-ray film?
Ans: The fixer. This rinses the silver halide crystals from the developer stage.
Q. What controls the contrast on the radiograph?
Q. A clear strip at the top of a manually processed film may be caused by
Ans: Low developer level
Q. What is the maximum intensity of the safelight on developing rooms?
Ans: 7.5 watts
Q. A radiograph made is too dark, what needs to be adjusted for the second attempt?
Ans: the mAs. Decrease the mAs, decrease the darkness.
Q. High mAs, low kVp techniques produce
Ans: radiographs of higher contrast (recommended for abdominal radiographs)
Q. Animals are legally classified
Ans: as personal property
California Veterinary Law Exam Answers – Sample Paper 5
Q. If a client’s dog bites the client during an examination, the veterinarian
Ans: could be held liable for the client’s injuries if the veterinarian knew the dog was dangerous but asked the owner to restrain it anyway
Q. Under the Federal Controlled Substances Act
Ans: Schedule-I drugs have a high human abuse potential and are currently not accepted for use in treatment in the U.S.
Q. A common source of malpractice suits involves
Ans: injury of clients while they are physically restraining their animals
Q. Can Registered Veterinary Technicians purchase sodium pentobarbital directly without the supervision or authorization of a licensed veterinarian?
Ans: Yes, as long as registered/authorized by the federal Drug Enforcement Administration.
Q. If an RVT renders emergency care in good faith, is she or her veterinary establishment liable?
Ans: No, not liable for any civil damages as the result of acts or omissions during ER care. This is waved in instances of gross negligence.
Q. Any licensee that has reasonable cause to believe a dog has been injured during a staged dog fight must
Ans: Report to the proper law enforcement authorities of the city and/or county. The licensee shall not incur any civil liability for the report.
Q. A licensee must report to the proper law enforcement authorities if abuse is suspected
Ans: With reasonable cause.
Ans: A CA-licensed veterinarian or a board-registered veterinary technician (if the job task provides)
Q. For Direct and Indirect supervision a veterinarian must already have
Ans: examined the animal
Q. What are the occupational dose equivalent limits for skin/extremities and lens of the eyes respectively?
-Skin/extremities (shallow dose equivalent)= 50 rems/year
-Lens of the eyes (eye dose equivalent)= 15 rems/year
Q. A person under 18 years of age is allowed what percent of the adult occupational dose limits of radiation?
Ans: 10% of adult occupational dose/year
Q. Legally how thick does the protective apparel for radiography (gloves, apron etc.) need to be
Ans: At least 0.25 mm of lead equivalent, 0.5 mm preferred.
Q. What is the purpose of the CVPA?
Ans: Tend to the safety, welfare, and protection of the public
Q. What are the definitions of veterinarian, RVT, unregistered assistant, and supervisor
-Veterinarian -California Licensed veterinary medical doctor
-RVT – California licensed Registered Veterinary Technician
-Unregistered assistant – any individual who is not a board-certified RVT or DVM
-Supervisor – California Veterinarian or where allowed by job task – RVT
Q. What are the job tasks of DVM?
-Give a Diagnosis
-Provide a Prognosis
-Prescribe drugs, medicine, or appliances
Q. What are the job tasks of RVTs under the direct supervision of DVM?
-Perform dental extractions
-Suture cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue, gingiva, and oral mucous membranes
-Apply casts and splints
-Create a relief hole in the skin to facilitate the placement of an intravascular catheter.
Q. What is direct supervision?
Ans: The supervisor is physically present at the location where the animal health care job tasks are to be performed and the supervisor is quickly and readily available.
Q. What is indirect supervision?
Ans: The vet is not on the premises, but has done a physical exam beforehand. Has left oral or written instructions.
Q. What task may RVTs perform under the indirect supervision of DVM?
-Administer controlled substances
-Subject to the provision of subsections a, b, and c, an RVT may perform animal health care tasks under the direct or indirect supervision of a licensed veterinarian.
Q. What task may unregistered assistants perform under the direct supervision of RVT or DVM?
Ans: may administer a controlled substance.
Q. What is immediate supervision?
Ans: DVM is on-premises and is within sight and hearing range where animal health care job tasks are being performed. The animal has been examined consistently with good medical practice prior to the task being delegated.
Q. What does VCPR stand for?
Ans: Veterinary client-patient relationship
Q. VCPR exists when?
-vet assumes the role of providing primary care for the animal.
-vet has sufficient knowledge of the animal to initiate diagnosis
-A veterinary drug shall not be prescribed for a duration which is inconsistent with the animal’s medical condition or the type of drug prescribed, and in no event will exceed more than one year from the date of exam.
Q. What must happen prior to surgery?
-Within 12 hours prior to surgery animal shall be given a pre-anesthetic exam.
-Must use appropriate and humane methods of anesthesia, analgesia, and sedation.
-Provide a method of respiratory monitoring.
-A method of cardiac monitoring shall be provided.
-When administering anesthesia must have appropriately sized resuscitation bags and endotracheal tubes readily available.
-An animal under general anesthesia must be under continuous observation until at least the swallowing reflex returns.
Q. MSM stands for? Can be performed by who?
Ans: Musculoskeletal Manipulation. The term refers to a system application of mechanical forces applied manually through hands or any mechanical device to enhance performance, prevent, cure, or relieve impaired or altered function.
MSM can only be performed by:
-Veterinarian with client/patient relationship established
-A California-licensed Chiropractor working under the direct supervision of a Veterinarian
Q. What are the minimum standards?
-Notice posted at the entrance with emergency hospital information when premises are closed.
-Answering service or machine which gives information on Emergency services.
-Licenses of all Veterinarians or RVTs posted in public areas.
-Radiology services and equipment on-premises or through contract with outside service.
-Laboratory services on-premises or through contract with outside service.
-Veterinary reference materials (current) shall be maintained and available.
-Equipment to deliver oxygen in emergency situations.
-Anesthetic equipment is maintained in good working order and available at all times.
-Sterilization equipment in good working order.
Q. What are the surgical standards?
Ans: Surgical instruments are adequate for the type of surgeries provided.
Acceptable method of sterilization:
-A separate sterile pack shall be used for each animal
-All packs shall have an indicator showing proper sterilization.
-Counters and floors must be of a material that can be easily disinfected.
-Emergency lighting shall be available in the surgery room.
-A view box for X-rays must be in the surgery suite.
Q. What must those in the surgery room wear?
Ans: Each member of the surgical team who will be touching the sterile field shall wear a gown, mask, and hair covering. All personnel in the surgery suite shall wear clean clothing footwear and protective masks and caps if they are in the vicinity of the sterile field.
Q. Where must a surgery room be located? Can any other procedures occur outside of the Sx room
Ans: A veterinarian may perform an aseptic procedure outside of the surgery suite in an emergency situation when the surgery suite is unavailable.
Q. What is the name of the California law that regulates the practice of veterinary medicine?
Ans: Answer: The California Veterinary Medicine Practice Act.
Q. Who is responsible for enforcing the California Veterinary Medicine Practice Act?
Ans: Answer: The California Veterinary Medical Board (VMB).
Q. What are the three types of veterinary licenses issued by the VMB? Answer: A veterinarian license, Ans: a veterinary technician license, and a veterinary assistant license.
Things To Remember Before Taking California Veterinary Law Exam
The California Veterinary Law Examination (VLE) is a required exam for all veterinary applicants who did not graduate from a California veterinary school or who qualify for licensure via reciprocity (either a full or one-year license).
The VLE is an open-book exam that consists of 32 questions on the California Veterinary Medicine Practice Act.
The exam must be completed within 40 days of submitting the veterinary license application.
The VLE is designed to assess a candidate’s knowledge of the California Veterinary Medicine Practice Act, which includes laws and regulations governing veterinary practice in the state of California.
The exam covers a wide range of topics, including:
- Veterinary licensing and registration requirements
- Veterinary ethics and professional conduct
- Veterinary-client-patient relationship
- Animal welfare and abuse
- Controlled substances
- Infectious diseases
- Public health and safety
The VLE is an important part of the veterinary licensing process in California.
Bypassing the VLE, candidates demonstrate that they have the knowledge and skills necessary to practice veterinary medicine in the state of California.
To prepare for the VLE, candidates should thoroughly review the California Veterinary Medicine Practice Act.
The California Veterinary Medical Board (VMB) also offers a variety of resources to help candidates prepare for the exam, including a study guide, sample questions, and practice exams.
The VLE is administered by the VMB. The exam is offered several times per year at various locations throughout California. Candidates can register for the exam online or by mail.
If you are a veterinary applicant who needs to take the VLE, I encourage you to visit the VMB website for more information on the exam and how to register.
With these tips in mind, you should be well on your way to passing the California Veterinary Law Exam.
Just remember to relax, take your time, and be prepared. With a little effort, you can enter the exciting world of driving in no time!
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